Searches on this database can be performed in the title, author, or keyword fields. In addition, you may conduct an everywheresearch that looks for a match in any of the title, author, keyword, or abstract fields.
Searches do not look for exact matches; instead it finds matches for any substring of a word or words that have been entered. For example, using the phrase organized crime as a title search will produce all citations that have this phrase in the title.
Searches on this database also accommodate the following Boolean operators: "and," "or," & "not." The search engine has been designed to allow you to conduct a Boolean search using one or a combination of title, author, keyword or everywhere searches.
For example the following search will provide citations written or edited by Dubro that have the phrase organized crime in the title, or have Canada as a keyword, but excludes any citations that have the word Toronto in the author, title, keyword, or abstract fields.
Title: organized crime
Keywords contains any word: Canada
Keywords does not contain: Toronto
Because of the size of this bibliographic database, the use of Boolean operators is recommended in order to refine your search and limit the number of references which may not be relevant to your search.
Help on how best to conduct searches in each field is provided below.
Search by title will search the title field for any word or phrase you enter. You may enter a complete title or any substring thereof. For example, entering story of the mob as a title search will produce all citations with this phrase in the title. If your title search does not produce any citations, consider trying an everywhere search.
An author search will attempt to find matches in both the analytical author field (i.e., the author of an article in an edited journal or book) and the monographic author field (i.e., the author or editor of a book).
If the full name is known, type in the last name first, followed by an initial (or the whole first name, if known). Capitalization is not required. For example, entering the name Abadinskywill produce citations of literature written or edited by anyone with the name Abadinsky.
Organizations or corporations can also be entered as an author search. For example, entering Royal Canadian Mounted Police in the author search field will produce citations for all literature with this organizational name in the author analytic or author monographic fields.
The search does not look for exact matches; instead it searches for any substring that matches the name you have entered. This means that anders will find anders, andersen, anderson, and sanderson.
If you are searching for an item with multiple names, or are having trouble finding matches, try an everywhere search.
The everywhere search will allow you to look for a match in any of the following fields: author, title, abstract, and keyword. You can use any word, phrase, or name. The search does not look for exact matches; instead it searches for any substring that matches the word or words you have entered.
For example, entering organized crimeas an everywhere search will produce all citations where this term occurs in the author, title, abstract, or keyword fields.
It is recommended that you use an everywhere search when looking for citations on very specific topics, such as the name of an individual, location, criminal organization, statute, etc.
A keyword search will search the keyword index for the words or names you enter and return a list that matches your term or terms.
We have compiled an extensive catalogue of keywords that are unique to organized crime. For analytical sake, the keywords are broken down into nine categories. Below you will find a list of each these categories. Click on any category for a list of relevant keywords.
Organized Crime Keyword Categories
The keyword search has been arranged to be as simple to use as possible. For example, if you would like to find literature on Chinese organized crime, enter
Keywords contains all words: Chinese, organized crime
For example, if you want to find citations on the involvement of Italian organized crime groups in labour racketeering in Toronto or New York, you would enter the following as your keyword search:
Keywords contains all words: Italian, labour racketeering, Toronto
Keywords contains any word: New York
This category refers to a specific organized crime "genre." Use one or more of the following keywords to select citations that contain a reference to a particular organized crime "genre."
outlaw motorcycle gangs
Note: keywords do not contain terms that have been traditionally used in references to specific organized crime genres, such as Mafia, Ndrangheta, Triad, Tong, Yakuza, Cartel, etc. However, an "everywhere" search will identify literature where these terms exist in the title or abstract fields.
This category refers to literature that define, describe, and/or analyze organized crime and corruption through the use of theories (e.g., ethnic succession, game theory), conceptual models (e.g., patron-client model, bureaucratic model), or specific analytical approaches (e.g., economic analysis). Use any of the following keywords to select citations that contain references to specific theories and conceptual models of organized crime. Using the keyword "theory" will provide citations for all scholarly literature that involve the development or application of theories or conceptual models.
behavioural / behavioral
This category refers to activities associated with organized crime. These activities include both strategic (i.e. profit-oriented ventures such as extortion, credit card fraud, counterfeiting, prostitution, drug trafficking, smuggling, etc.) and tactical (i.e. activities that support the criminal organization and its profit-oriented activities such as money laundering, violence, corruption, counter-intelligence, recruitment, communication, etc.) Use any of the following keywords to select citations that contain a reference to a particular organized crime activity. A combination of keywords will help narrow your search for organized criminal activities. For example, a keyword search using the word "narcotics" will produce literature dealing with all aspects of illegal drugs (e.g., trafficking, smuggling, use, enforcement, etc.) It is recommended that Boolean searches be used that include relevant keywords to narrow your search, in particular: trafficking, smuggling, theft, fraud, and counterfeiting.For example, if you would like to find literature on drug trafficking, enter
Keywords contains all words: narcotics, trafficking
If you would like to find literature on organized automobile theft, enter:
Keywords contains all words: automobile, theft, organized crime
If you would like to find literature on cheque fraud, enter:
Keywords contains all words: cheque, fraud
arson art artefacts
cheque child prostitution
cocaine computer crime
cultivation (of illegal substances)
currency economic crime embezzlement
health care heroin
judicial corruption kidnapping
membership (in criminal organizations and gangs)
people (e.g., smuggling or trafficking in people)
prison guard corruption
trafficking (includes all forms, such as narcotics, arms, people)
wildlife (trafficking and smuggling)
This category refers to literature that deal with the issue of corruption. This category is broken down into six fields, listed below. This data base provides citations that examine corruption both within and outside of the field of organized crime. For example, a search that only uses the keyword political corruption will provide citations on all works dealing with corruption (both within and outside the study of organized crime). Use a Boolean search to narrow your focus. For example, the following Boolean keyword search will provide all citations making reference to corruption by organized crime groups
Keywords contains all words: corruption, organized crime
prison guard corruption
This category refers to private sector industries that have been infiltrated by organized crime groups. Use any of the following keywords to select citations that contain a reference to industries infiltrated by organized crime. Use the keyword private sector for all citations that make reference to the involvement of organized crime in legitimate private sector industries.
automobile wrecking auditor
boxing business racketeering businesses
construction credit card dairy
This category refers to specific criminal organizations. Examples of specific organized crime groups that can be found using the keyword search are listed below. (Note: This list is only a fraction of the names of criminal organizations in the keyword database). To maximize the number of hits when using the name of a criminal organization, it is recommended that you use an everywhere search.
|Big Circle Boys
Born to Kill
Dai Huen Jai
La Nuestra Family
Mohawk Warrior Society
Sons of Silence
This category refers to names of individuals connected to organized crime and corruption. This category includes names of those involved as participants, victims, or in organized crime enforcement. In relation to corruption, it includes names of both "corrupters" and "corruptees". Examples of names of individuals that can be found using the keyword search are listed below. (Note: This list is only a fraction of the names of individuals in the keyword database). To maximize the number of hits when using an individual's name, use an everywhere search.
Continent/Country/Province/State/City This category refers to the geographic region that is the principle focus of the source work. For works relating to a specific city, state, province, country, or continent simply enter the relevant name or names as your keyword(s).
This category refers to enforcement efforts against organized crime. Use any of the following keywords to select citations that contain a reference to organized crime enforcement. The keyword enforcement will provide all citations dealing with organized crime enforcement and corruption. Keywords also include names of enforcement agencies (e.g., United States Drug Enforcement Administration), specific enforcement approaches (e.g., asset forfeiture) and legislation (e.g., Bank Secrecy Act). For maximum hits on searches for names of enforcement agencies or legislation, it is recommended that an everywhere search be conducted.
|alternatives (to traditional enforcement such as legalization, treatment, etc.)
asset forfeiture asset sharing
Bank Secrecy Act
civil forfeiture civil remedies
commission (i.e., government commissions) corrections
critique (literature critiquing traditional enforcement) crop eradication crop substitution
evaluation (of enforcement programs and policies)
forensic accounting grand jury
interagency cooperation Interdiction international cooperation Interpol
law and legislation
legalization national security
search and seizure
Certain keywords will also allow you to find citations that make reference to special organized crime and corruption topics.
- biography (biographies, primarily dealing with organized crime figures)
- youth gangs
- general (literature that provide an introduction to and overview of organized crime or a more specific topic, such as drug trafficking)
- history (literature that either pre-date World War Two or provide a historical accounting of a particular topic. You can narrow the search by using keywords such as 20th century, 19th century, etc.)
- impact (literature that examines the impact of organized crime on society)
- media (literature that examine the treatment of organized crime and corruption by the media)
- narco-terrorism (national and international security implications of organized crime and drug trafficking in particular)
- popular culture (treatment of organized crime as popular culture) prohibition (the era of prohibition in North America)
- research methods (scholarly studies into organized crime that have advanced research methodologies)
- structure (examines the organizational structure of crime groups)
- technology (the use of technology by criminal organizations and enforcement agencies)
- transnational (transnational organized crime)
- women (women in organized crime and youth gangs - for works specifically on prostitution use the keyword prostitution.