Searching Help

Searches on this database can be performed in the title, author, or keyword fields. In addition, you may conduct an everywheresearch that looks for a match in any of the title, author, keyword, or abstract fields. 

Searches do not look for exact matches; instead it finds matches for any substring of  a word or words that have been entered. For example, using the phrase organized crime as a title search will produce all citations that have this phrase in the title. 

Searches on this database also accommodate the following Boolean operators: "and," "or," & "not." The search engine has been designed to allow you to conduct a Boolean search using one or a combination of title, author, keyword or everywhere searches. 

For example the following search will provide citations written or edited by Dubro that have the phrase organized crime in the title, or have Canada as a keyword, but excludes any citations that have the word Toronto in the author, title, keyword, or abstract fields. 

Author: Dubro
Title:
organized crime 
Keywords contains any word:
Canada
Keywords does not contain:
Toronto 

Because of the size of this bibliographic database, the use of Boolean operators is recommended in order to refine your search and limit the number of references which may not be relevant to your search. 

Help on how best to conduct searches in each field is provided below. 


Title Search

Search by title will search the title field for any word or phrase you enter. You may enter a complete title or any substring thereof. For example, entering story of the mob as a title search will produce all citations with this phrase in the title. If your title search does not produce any citations, consider trying an everywhere search

Return to the main search page.


Author Search

An author search will attempt to find matches in both the analytical author field (i.e., the author of an article in an edited journal or book) and the monographic author field (i.e., the author or editor of a book). 

If the full name is known, type in the last name first, followed by an initial (or the whole first name, if known). Capitalization is not required. For example, entering the name Abadinskywill produce citations of literature written or edited by anyone with the name Abadinsky. 

Organizations or corporations can also be entered as an author search. For example, entering Royal Canadian Mounted Police in the author search field will produce citations for all literature with this organizational name in the author analytic or author monographic fields. 

The search does not look for exact matches; instead it searches for any substring that matches the name you have entered. This means that anders will find anders, andersen, anderson, and sanderson

If you are searching for an item with multiple names, or are having trouble finding matches, try an everywhere search.

Return to the main search page.


Everywhere Search

The everywhere search will allow you to look for a match in any of the following fields: author, title, abstract, and keyword. You can use any word, phrase, or name. The search does not look for exact matches; instead it searches for any substring that matches the word or words you have entered. 

For example, entering organized crimeas an everywhere search will produce all citations where this term occurs in the author, title, abstract, or keyword fields. 

It is recommended that you use an everywhere search when looking for citations on very specific topics, such as the name of an individual, location, criminal organization, statute, etc. 

Return to the main search page.


Keyword Search

A keyword search will search the keyword index for the words or names you enter and return a list that matches your term or terms. 

We have compiled an extensive catalogue of keywords that are unique to organized crime. For analytical sake, the keywords are broken down into nine categories. Below you will find a list of each these categories. Click on any category for a list of relevant keywords.

Organized Crime Keyword Categories

Organized Crime "Genre"
Theories and Conceptual Models
Organized Crime Activities
Corruption
Private Sector Industries affected by organized crime
Name of Criminal Organization
Name of Individual
Geographic Region
Organized Crime Enforcement
Special Topics

The keyword search has been arranged to be as simple to use as possible. For example, if you would like to find literature on Chinese organized crime, enter 

Keywords contains all words: Chinese, organized crime 

For example, if you want to find citations on the involvement of Italian organized crime groups in labour racketeering in Toronto or New York, you would enter the following as your keyword search: 

Keywords contains all words: Italian, labour racketeering, Toronto 
Keywords contains any word: New York

Return to the main search page.


Organized Crime Genre

This category refers to a specific organized crime "genre." Use one or more of the following keywords to select citations that contain a reference to a particular organized crime "genre."  
 

Aboriginal
African
African-American 
Anglo
Albanian
Asian 
Canadian
Camorra 
Chinese 
Corsican 
Colombian 
Dacoits 
Dominican 
Eastern European 
French 
French-Canadian
Gypsies Hispanic 
Indian
Irish
Israeli Italian 
Jamaican 
Japanese 
Jewish 
Korean 
Lebanese
Mexican
Nigerian 
outlaw motorcycle gangs 
prison gangs 
Russian 
Turkish
Vietnamese
Westies
Youth Gangs

Note: keywords do not contain terms that have been traditionally used in references to specific organized crime genres, such as Mafia, Ndrangheta, Triad, Tong, Yakuza, Cartel, etc. However, an "everywhere" search will identify literature where these terms exist in the title or abstract fields. 


Theories, Conceptual Models, and Analytical Approaches

This category refers to literature that define, describe, and/or analyze organized crime and corruption through the use of theories (e.g., ethnic succession, game theory), conceptual models (e.g., patron-client model, bureaucratic model), or specific analytical approaches (e.g., economic analysis). Use any of the following keywords to select citations that contain references to specific theories and conceptual models of organized crime. Using the keyword "theory" will provide citations for all scholarly literature that involve the development or application of theories or conceptual models.  
 

alien conspiracy 
behavioural / behavioral
anthropology 
bureaucratic 
clientism 
control theory 
community paradigm 
cultural transmission 
differential association 
ethnic succession 
economic analysis 
feminist theory 
game theory

liberation theology 
Marxist 
opportunity theory 
organic social model 
organizational theory 
patron-client 
psychology 
radical 
reasoned action theory 
shaming 
sociology 
theory


Organized Crime Activities

This category refers to activities associated with organized crime. These activities include both strategic (i.e. profit-oriented ventures such as extortion, credit card fraud, counterfeiting, prostitution, drug trafficking, smuggling, etc.) and tactical (i.e. activities that support the criminal organization and its profit-oriented activities such as money laundering, violence, corruption, counter-intelligence, recruitment, communication, etc.) Use any of the following keywords to select citations that contain a reference to a particular organized crime activity. A combination of keywords will help narrow your search for organized criminal activities. For example, a keyword search using the word "narcotics" will produce literature dealing with all aspects of illegal drugs (e.g., trafficking, smuggling, use, enforcement, etc.)  It is recommended that Boolean searches be used that include relevant keywords to narrow your search, in particular: trafficking, smuggling, theft, fraud, and counterfeiting.For example, if you would like to find literature on drug trafficking, enter 

Keywords contains all words: narcotics, trafficking

If you would like to find literature on organized automobile theft, enter:        

Keywords contains all words: automobile, theft, organized crime

If you would like to find literature on cheque fraud, enter:

Keywords contains all words: cheque, fraud
           

advance fee
amphetamines antiques 
arms 
arson art artefacts 
automobile 
babies 
bankruptcy 
cheque child prostitution 
child pornography 
cocaine  computer crime 
corporate corruption 
corruption 
counterfeiting 
crack cocaine 
credit card 
cultivation (of illegal substances) 
currency economic crime embezzlement 
environmental
extortion 
fraud 
gambling 
hashish 
health care heroin 
hijacking 
home invasions 
human organs
identity 
Internet jewellery
judicial corruption kidnapping
labour racketeering
liquor loansharking 
mail fraud 
marijuana 
membership (in criminal organizations and gangs) 
money laundering 
narcotics 
opium
people (e.g., smuggling or trafficking in people)
political corruption 
police corruption
pornography
prison guard corruption
prostitution 
recruitment 
smuggling 
tax evasion 
tobacco technology 
telecommunications telemarketing
theft
trafficking (includes all forms, such as narcotics, arms, people) 
violence 
waste disposal
wildlife (trafficking and smuggling)

Corruption

This category refers to literature that deal with the issue of corruption. This category is broken down into six fields, listed below. This data base provides citations that examine corruption both within and outside of the field of organized crime. For example, a search that only uses the keyword political corruption will provide citations on all works dealing with corruption (both within and outside the study of organized crime). Use a Boolean search to narrow your focus. For example, the following Boolean keyword search will provide all citations making reference to corruption by organized crime groups

Keywords contains all words: corruption, organized crime

bureaucratic corruption 
corporate corruption 
corruption 
judicial corruption
military corruption 
police corruption 
political corruption 
prison guard corruption 

Private Sector

This category refers to private sector industries that have been infiltrated by organized crime groups. Use any of the following keywords to select citations that contain a reference to industries infiltrated by organized crime. Use the keyword private sector for all citations that make reference to the involvement of organized crime in legitimate private sector industries.  
 

accountants 
antiques 
arms 
automobile dealers 
automobile wrecking auditor 
banks 
bars 
boxing business racketeering businesses  
casinos 
cheque cashing
cigarettes 
coal 
computers
construction credit card dairy 
entertainment 
financial institutions 
garment 
health care 
horse racing 
hotels 
insurance 
jewellery 
lawyers 
 
liquor 
lotteries
music nuclear 
oil 
precursor chemicals 
ports 
real estate 
restaurants securities 
sports 
telemarketing 
transport 
trucking 
waste disposal 

Name of Criminal Organization

This category refers to specific criminal organizations. Examples of specific organized crime groups that can be found using the keyword search are listed below. (Note: This list is only a fraction of the names of criminal organizations in the keyword database). To maximize the number of hits when using the name of a criminal organization, it is recommended that you use an everywhere search
 

Big Circle Boys 
Black Hand 
Bloods 
Bonnano Family 
Born to Kill 
Boyd Gang 
Bruno Family 
Cali Cartel 
Crips 
Cotroni Family 
Dai Huen Jai 
Diablos 
Dubois Family 
Flaming Eagles 
Gambino Family 
Genovese Family 
Gypsy Jokers 
Hatch Family 
Hell's Angels
Hung Men 
Juarez Cartel 
La Nuestra Family
Lupinno Family 
Magadinno Family
Medellin Cartel 
Mohawk Warrior Society 
Outlaws 
Pagens 
Papalia Family 
Rebels 
Rockers 
Rock Machine 
Satan's Choice 
Scarfo Family 
Sons of Silence 
Vice Lords 
Wild Cowboys

Name of Individual

This category refers to names of individuals connected to organized crime and corruption. This category includes names of those involved as participants, victims, or in organized crime enforcement. In relation to corruption, it includes names of both "corrupters" and "corruptees". Examples of names of individuals that can be found using the keyword search are listed below. (Note: This list is only a fraction of the names of individuals in the keyword database). To maximize the number of hits when using an individual's name, use an everywhere search
 

Luciano 
Barger 
Bonnano 
Capone 
Cotroni 
Eagleson 
Escobar 
Gambino 
Gingrich 
Lansky 
Obront 
Packwood 
Papalia 
Scarfo 

Geographic Region 

Continent/Country/Province/State/City This category refers to the geographic region that is the principle focus of the source work. For works relating to a specific city, state, province, country, or continent simply enter the relevant name or names as your keyword(s). 


Organized Crime Enforcement

This category refers to enforcement efforts against organized crime. Use any of the following keywords to select citations that contain a reference to organized crime enforcement. The keyword enforcement will provide all citations dealing with organized crime enforcement and corruption. Keywords also include names of enforcement agencies (e.g., United States Drug Enforcement Administration), specific enforcement approaches (e.g., asset forfeiture) and legislation (e.g., Bank Secrecy Act). For maximum hits on searches for names of enforcement agencies or legislation, it is recommended that an everywhere search be conducted. 
 
 

alternatives (to traditional enforcement such as legalization, treatment, etc.) 
armed forces 
asset forfeiture asset sharing 
Bank Secrecy Act
citizen participation 
civil forfeiture civil remedies
civil rights
commission (i.e., government commissions) corrections 
critique (literature critiquing traditional enforcement) crop eradication crop substitution 
deportation 
enforcement 
entrapment 
evaluation (of enforcement programs and policies)
extradition 
extra-territoriality
forensic accounting grand jury
informant  intelligence 
interagency cooperation Interdiction international cooperation Interpol 
law and legislation 
legalization national security 
prevention 
prosecution 
RICO 
search and seizure 
sentencing 
surveillance 
treaties 
undercover 
witness protection

 


Special Topics 

Certain keywords will also allow you to find citations that make reference to special organized crime and corruption topics. 

  • biography (biographies, primarily dealing with organized crime figures)
  • youth gangs 
  • general (literature that provide an introduction to and overview of organized crime or a more specific topic, such as drug trafficking)
  • history (literature that either pre-date World War Two or provide a historical accounting of a particular topic. You can narrow the search by using keywords such as 20th century, 19th century, etc.)
  • impact (literature that examines the impact of organized crime on society)
  • media (literature that examine the treatment of organized crime and corruption by the media)
  • narco-terrorism (national and international security implications of organized crime and drug trafficking in particular)
  • popular culture (treatment of organized crime as popular culture) prohibition (the era of prohibition in North America)
  • research methods (scholarly studies into organized crime that have advanced research methodologies) 
  • structure (examines the organizational structure of crime groups)
  • technology (the use of technology by criminal organizations and enforcement agencies)
  • transnational (transnational organized crime)
  • women (women in organized crime and youth gangs - for works specifically on prostitution use the keyword prostitution.